Active Directory in Windows Server 2008 R2


Active Directory is the Brain of a Windows Server Network. It’s a database that keeps track of a huge amount of stuff and gives us a centralized way to manage all our network machines, users, and resources.

It allows you to store your user accounts and passwords in one protected location, improving your organization’s security.

Advantages of Active Directory

1. It will provide fully integrated security in the form of user logon’s and authentication.

2. It makes easy in administration in the form of group policies and permissions.

3. It makes easy to identify the resources.

4. It will provide scalability, flexibility and extendibility.

5. It is tightly integrated with DNS services for all its operations, which will provide better in identifications and migrations.

6. It services will provide Automatic replication of information between the domain controllers.

7. It supports integration of the other directory services also.

8. It supports multiple authentication protocols.

Active Directory Infrastructure

Logical Structure

Physical Structure

1. Logical Structure


One or more domain controllers are required to create an Active Directory domain. A domain is an administrative unit within which certain capabilities and characteristics are shared.


A forest is a collection of one or more Active Directory domains. The first domain installed in a forest is called the forest root domain.


The DNS namespace of domains in a forest creates trees within the forest. If a domain is a subdomain of another domain, the two domains are considered a tree.

Organizational units

Objects in the data store can be collected in containers. One type of container is the object class called container. Another type of container is the organizational unit (OU). OUs provide not only a container for objects but also a scope with which to manage the objects.


Means users, computers etc.

2. Physical Structure:

Domain controllers

Domain controllers, also referred to as DCs, are servers that perform the AD DS role.


Collection of DCs connected with high speed permanent reliable connections.

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